In Cree, “iskonikan” translates to “reserve” or “leftovers”, referring to the lands that Canada didn’t want. Deemed useless for proposed colonial settlement, these lands were then marked to create reserves across the country, displacing vast Indigenous Nations onto much reduced, harsh and unforgiving terrain. During this time of upheaval, Canada’s hope was that First Nation culture would be forced to submit to colonial ideology, or risk disappearing entirely.

Download PDF