Can First Nation land be expropriated by Canada?

Yes, but to a limited extent. Canada’s power to expropriate First Nation land is constrained. That power can only be exercised when the expropriation is justified and necessary for a federal public purpose that serves the national interest. Compensation must include provision for equivalent lands so that the land base of the First Nation is not diminished.

Can First Nation land be expropriated by a Province?

No. Under the FAFNLM there can be no expropriation of First Nation land by a provincial or municipal government or agency

Can a First Nation expropriate interests in First Nation lands?

Yes. A First Nation will have the power to acquire interests in lands for community works or other community purposes. It must pay fair compensation to members or non-members whose interests are affected according to rules approved by the community in the land code.

Some First Nations have voluntarily waived or restricted their expropriation power in their Land Code in accordance with the wishes of their members.

Can a Province or Municipality be exempt from First Nation expropriation?

Yes. The First Nation’s expropriation powers apply only to its own reserve lands.